Despite emerging good practices in SAI and citizen collaboration, knowledge is still limited regarding what other nontechnical issues should be considered when designing a multi-stakeholder engagement strategy.

This module will focus more on the operational aspects of planning, building, and sustaining partnerships between SAIs and CSOs in the audit cycle. The emphasis is on providing tools and approaches to tackle the practical challenges associated with the operationalization of SAI–citizen engagement.

The module presents the types of leadership and strategies that can be used to nurture constructive engagement and effectively mobilize resources and people. Case studies are provided to demonstrate the application of those concepts in different contexts. Moreover, a participatory methodology developed by the PPBA team is introduced to help foster an enabling environment and build the necessary capacities that are critical to successful partnership building. This module discusses common challenges encountered in this process, as well as actions and strategies that can be used to mitigate them.

Learning Objectives

At the end of module 3 you will be able to:

  • Identify the challenges of an effective multi-stakeholder engagement and learn about existing approaches (adaptive leadership, constructive engagement, rapid results approach) to overcome them
  • Understand the building blocks and characteristic of an effective SAI- partnership through case studies
  • Identify the steps and resources, as well as the roles and responsibilities of the different actors involved (SAIs and CSOs), that are needed to move from planning to implementation

Any comments? Please notify us here.


Reed, Q. (2013): “Maximising the efficiency and impact of Supreme Audit Institutions through engagement with other stakeholders”, U4 Issue Nº9, Bergen, U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre - Chr. Michelsen Institute.

UNDP (2001): “Governance and Accountability: Progress Report on the Implementation of the Forum’s Eight Principles of Accountability and the Development of Best Practices for Legislatures”, Briefing Paper for FEMM meeting.

GIZ-INTOSAI (2013): Supreme Audit Institutions. Accountability for Development.

O'Meally, S. (2013): “Mapping Context for Social Accountability: A Resource Paper”, Social Development Department, Washington DC: The World Bank.

Velásquez Leal, L. F. (2012): “Manual: Good practices for approaching citizenship”, OLACEFS´ Commission on Citizen Participation.

Heifetz, R., Grashow, A. et al (2009): The Practice of Adaptive Leadership: Tools and Tactics for Changing Your Organization and the World, Boston, Harvard Business Press.

Contreras, M. (2013): “The World Bank Institute’s Leadership for Development Program”, Presentation Leadership 4D – Catalyzing Change, WBI.

Heifetz, R. A. (1994). Leadership Without Easy Answers. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Heifetz, R., Grashow, A. and Marty Linsky (2009): The Theory Behind the Practice. A Brief Introduction to the Adaptive Leadership Framework, Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation.

Robert A. Neiman, “Execution Plain and Simple: Twelve Steps to Achieving Any Goal On Time and On Budget” 2004 pg. 105. Robert Neiman was a partner at Schaffer Consulting.

Osiche, Mark. “Applying Rapid Results Approach to Local Service Delivery: Emerging Issues, Lessons and Challenges from Nairobi City Council” in Local Governance & Development Journal Volume 2 Number 2, December 2008: pages 24-39.