Rapid Results Approach Tools

Building coalitions for public participation in the audit process—implementation checklist


The worksheet that follows is meant to stimulate thinking about how to develop, grow, and sustain a coalition. Use the questions to check the team’s level of preparedness.


  • What is the solution we want to implement?
  • Why is the solution hard to implement, and what are the problems and challenges?
  • Who are the stakeholders related to our challenge?
  • How should we organize ourselves today?
  • How do we want to be organized in the future?


  • Why are we in this room together?
  • Is the timing right to work on our common problem?
  • What is each individual stakeholder’s vision of success?
  • What is the benefit of the successful establishment of our coalition?
  • What are the risks of the successful establishment of our coalition?
  • How much time and energy are we each able to commit?
  • What must happen for us to have confidence in this coalition?


  • What are the five critical steps that must happen for us to realize our goal? (We must consolidate similar ideas)
  • What are the tasks that we do not know how to do? Are they on the list of steps?
  • Do we have a work plan based on what we know we have to do and discover?


  • Which activities are complete, and which activities are not?
  • What is the outcome of complete and incomplete activities? Can we learn anything about how we work and the effect our work is having on our coalition, the government, civil society, and citizens?
  • How are we working as a coalition? In cases in which we do not experience progress, are there things we can assume, roles and responsibilities we can better define?
  • What are the implications of all of this on our work plan? Which strategies need to change? Which activities should be scaled up or scaled down?

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Reed, Q. (2013): “Maximising the efficiency and impact of Supreme Audit Institutions through engagement with other stakeholders”, U4 Issue Nº9, Bergen, U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre - Chr. Michelsen Institute.

UNDP (2001): “Governance and Accountability: Progress Report on the Implementation of the Forum’s Eight Principles of Accountability and the Development of Best Practices for Legislatures”, Briefing Paper for FEMM meeting.

GIZ-INTOSAI (2013): Supreme Audit Institutions. Accountability for Development.

O'Meally, S. (2013): “Mapping Context for Social Accountability: A Resource Paper”, Social Development Department, Washington DC: The World Bank.

Velásquez Leal, L. F. (2012): “Manual: Good practices for approaching citizenship”, OLACEFS´ Commission on Citizen Participation.

Heifetz, R., Grashow, A. et al (2009): The Practice of Adaptive Leadership: Tools and Tactics for Changing Your Organization and the World, Boston, Harvard Business Press.

Contreras, M. (2013): “The World Bank Institute’s Leadership for Development Program”, Presentation Leadership 4D – Catalyzing Change, WBI.

Heifetz, R. A. (1994). Leadership Without Easy Answers. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Heifetz, R., Grashow, A. and Marty Linsky (2009): The Theory Behind the Practice. A Brief Introduction to the Adaptive Leadership Framework, Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation.

Robert A. Neiman, “Execution Plain and Simple: Twelve Steps to Achieving Any Goal On Time and On Budget” 2004 pg. 105. Robert Neiman was a partner at Schaffer Consulting.

Osiche, Mark. “Applying Rapid Results Approach to Local Service Delivery: Emerging Issues, Lessons and Challenges from Nairobi City Council” in Local Governance & Development Journal Volume 2 Number 2, December 2008: pages 24-39.